CIDAUT is committed to continuously improve its processes, and its key process, the development of R&D projects could not be strange to it. In Lean philosophy we have found a way to achieve this goal, while enhancing the involvement and motivation of our people.
Lean is historically linked to the quality characteristics proposed by the Toyota Production System (TPS) and emphasizes mainly on operational efficiency and high quality in production.
Lean Project Management (LPM) is the application of Lean principles in the context of project management. LPM shares many principles in common with other lean concepts. The fundamental principle is based on creating more value with less “waste” by using Lean tools such as standardization, visual control, daily Kaizen, etc. LPM is not very different from traditional project management focusing in customer needs, processes and problems solving, but focuses on using agile methodologies which eliminate anything that does not add value to projects.
Our goal has always been to be more efficient managing our R&D projects, so we explored the Lean philosophy and its agile methodologies and made the decision to introduce LPM in our R&D projects. And so, we selected two pilot R&D projects on aluminium processing and both project teams were trained in LPM methodologies to learn the main concepts and tools.
For each of them, the whole team participated in the initial definition of the project which helped everyone to have complete information about objectives, project scope and deliverables of the work to be carried out. The initial A3 (Lean uses an A3 thinking method which establishes that all reports must fit into a DIN A3 size sheet) contains the limits of the project and is visible and accessible throughout the project lifetime.
The next step was the identification of the main milestones and the design of the project implementation. The planning based on deliverables facilitates the involvement of the team providing them with a clear vision of the work. This plan created a positive momentum in the team.
Afterwards, indicators were established to monitor the progress of the project and are reviewed in “kaizen meetings” held weekly. In these meetings, the kaizen leader reviews the planning with the team, updates the tasks to be performed along next two weeks, the state of the indicators (consumption of buffer and confidence curve) and identifies new standards that are necessary as well as problems to be discussed in parallel meetings.
The implementation of the full methodology is made through visual tools in a monitoring room, known as “Oobeya room”. This allows everyone to check information on the progress of the project at any moment.
It has been a hard road. Lean methodology is simple to apply but it is necessary to overcome “resistance to change”. Resistance appears whenever we need changing the way we have always done things and generate new work habits. This was the most difficult issue to solve and we have had to overcome many related problems. However, it is important to note that the effort has been worthy as now we have a more cohesive and involved team with a single common goal.
LPM has allowed us to get shorter lead times ensuring compliance with agreed deadlines; to have a more controlled planning available; to guarantee problems are detected earlier and are solved working together; to get complete and timely information for all involved people, etc. But the result we are most proud of is the increased motivation and involvement of the work team.
Considering the good experience achieved in R&D projects, we are acquiring knowledge in other agile methodologies commonly applied in Software Development Projects as SCRUM and eXtreme Programming in order to apply them in this kind of work. We expect to get such good results as well as promise to let you know in future issues of this newsletter!
Self-Learning Energy Efficient builDings and open Spaces (SEEDS) is a Research project co-funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Program (Call FP7-2011-NMP-ENV-ENERGY-ICT-EeB). It started in September 2011 and its final tasks are scheduled for February 2015.
CIDAUT is one of the nine European partners in this project, coordinated by CEMOSA, which is focused on saving energy in the building sector through the development of specific optimization and self-learning methodologies, supported by new ICT and wireless technologies.
The SEEDS project has developed new technologies for optimizing building’s performance in terms of energy, comfort and life cycle costs. SEEDS applies an innovative building modelling methodology based on measurements and self-learning techniques. Modern optimization algorithms allows SEEDS to minimize energy consumption while keeping comfort and health conditions. A network of wireless sensors and actuators suitable for Building Automation Systems has been developed under SEEDS to facilitate its deployment and application to retrofitting of old buildings.SEEDS is an Energy Management System suitable not only for buildings but also for the surrounding open spaces. Its open architecture may be applied either in retrofitting of old buildings but also in new building designs.
It is based on research and scientific advances in wireless sensor technology, machine learning, and Bayesian networks, as well as standard statistical methods to enable the relationships between key variables to be continuously learned, facilitate prediction and enable control.
The technology is being tested in two very different validation pilots: an office building in Madrid (Hot Southern Europe) and a University building in Stavanger (Cold Northern Europe).
The core of the project has already been developed, including:
- Development of a modelling methodology for a wide spectrum of building types and energy systems and subsystems.
- Research and development of scalable implementations of global optimization algorithms.
- Development of self learning and optimization behavioural models for energy systems and subsystems in buildings.
- Development and adaptation of a network of Wireless Intelligent Sensors and Actuators (WISA) and design and implementation of communication middleware and configuration tools for the WISA.
- Development and refinement of anytime self-learning and optimization algorithms able to cope with the requirements of energy management systems.
- Definition of the RoadMap for the implementation and commissioning of SEEDS into the two validation pilots.
- Analysis of the energy facilities and performance of the two demo pilots, selection of sensors to evaluate the initial condition of the two demo pilots.
- Selection of the equipment to be monitored and controlled in both demo pilots, selection of sensors and actuators and design of wireless communication elements (nodes and gateways).
- Development of a MS Access database describing all relations between rooms, devices, sensors, actuators, signals, variables, comfort boundaries and energy consumption.
- Definition of control settings for a proper operation of building devices.
- Installation of wireless communication elements and the corresponding connections to sensors and actuators.
- Definition of a self-learning training procedure and adequate local control algorithms to run the equipment in the first few days of operation.
- Generation of a Graphical User Interface so as to the system is able to communicate with the operator.
- Development of the necessary software programs to connect all the elements and run the whole system.
- Definition and execution of system test plans.
Developments over the next six months will include:
- Run the system in both demonstrators, verifying the correct operation of algorithms and communication elements.
- Assessment of energy efficiency and energy savings achieved, by comparing the current energy consumption with the one measured before the implantation of the new system.
- Life cycle impact assessment of this new BEM (Building Energy Management) system.
- Post-occupancy study, based on a user survey.
- Development of a guide for “Best practices for energy efficient buildings and open spaces”.
At the end of this project we expect to have demonstrated the technical feasibility and verify the energy efficiency of a new control system for buildings applying optimization and self-learning algorithms based on the measured data. Wireless communication signals make it suitable to building retrofitting.
Scheme of core of SEEDS BEM core system
Within the scope of the Cleansky Programme, CIDAUT leads a research project aimed at the manufacturing of composite rotorcraft blades with very tight tolerances that will incorporate an Active Gurney Flap mechanism. Active Gurney Flap (AGF) systems enable the rotorcraft to safely operate with reduced tip speeds whilst preserving high performances with reduced fuel consumption and noise; something that constitutes one of the most challenging research areas leaded by the Green Rotorcraft Consortium in the Cleansky Programme: the development of Active Rotor Technologies.
Active Gurney Flap mechanisms scheme.
In the ACCUBLADE project, CIDAUT researches on the development of a robust and very accurate moulding process for the manufacturing of carbon fibre model blades that will be used for validation of the AGF systems through wind tunnel tests. Due to the small scale of the model blades, the dimensional requirements for the manufacturing are very tight, less than +/- 0,1mm on the aerodynamic profile. In order to fulfil the tight tolerances, not only the mould must be machined with high precision means, but also the cavity design must be defined with special consideration for minimizing any distortion during the process.
The analysis of potential process-induced distortions, such as warping or spring-in, has been carried out by means of process simulations based in accurate material parameters identified through laboratory material characterisation tests. The influence of different material and processing parameters including the weave pattern, ply stacking, mould interaction, curing temperature and pressure has been experimentally characterised and correlated with the simulation models. These have been developed for the prediction of the distortions that would appear during the processing of the model blades. Using this methodology, the design of the cavity can be defined to fulfil the required tolerances.
Mould design optimization methodology by means of process simulations.
During the near to follow validation stage, CIDAUT will partake in the processing of the model blades and the non destructive and destructive inspection tests that will be carried out to demonstrate the functionality of the tools and to validate the design methodology.
In particular, the following outcomes from the ACCUBLADE project will stand out among the technological expected results:
- An optimization methodology for tooling and moulds design based in accurate distortion simulations accounting for different thermal coefficients of the composite materials.
- A reduction in current development costs and lead-times for aeronautic composite parts, that usually need expensive and long lasting trial and error procedures to be carried out before a suitable mould cavity design is experimentally determined.
Since January 2013 CIDAUT has been working on the NEMESIS project, entitled “New Trends and Market Survey for the End of Life of Aircrafts. Eco Design Guideline”. CIDAUT has led the consortium working with three other partners (University of Valladolid, ITRB Ltd and PBLH International Consulting), all under the supervision of Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology.
The dismantling of aircraft materials nowadays is not a real option; many planes lie abandoned around the world or have been sent to landfills.
To deal with this undesired situation, the NEMESIS project has designed a methodology which combines the expected market data with the current and expected future steps for a/c dismantling and recycling.
To achieve this ambitious goal, firstly a market survey was conducted (questionnaires and interviews) whre more than 1000 experts were surveyed. Afterwards, their responses were thouroughly analyzed and used to carry out a forecast study. To this end, years 2014 and 2024 were chosen as horizon basis, considering four different future scenarios.
In the course of the project an analysis of the technologies involved in the recycling processes was also conducted, identifying their most important characteristics.
With all this data an automatic decision tree was implemented, and two different conditions were analyzed: the cheapest process or the best quality. Afterwards, a complete application example was carried out as a case study for demonstration purposes. On this regard the Belly Fairing for an Airbus plane was chosen and the computer application was developed in MS Excel. Therefore this application can easily be used for any other component of the aircraft in the future.
Finally an economic sustainability study was conducted, where several estimations of the future of recycled materials were performed. These estimations were compared with those of the experts (obtained via the Market Survey) and the recycling methodologies previously calculated from an economic viewpoint were analyzed. This allowed a complete validation of the developed methodology.
The project finished last June and the results have met all the expectations, showing mainly the evolution of materials and, therefore, the future of aircraft recycling.
Thanks to this project, and others working in the same direction, the aircraft recycling will become a reality in the future. Perhaps, in a few years it will be possible to adapt aeronautical regulations in a similar way to those existing for the automotive industry.
The last dissemination event of the E-VECTOORC project was hosted in the Heritage Motor Center at Gaydon.
Three years after its launch, the E-VECTOORC consortium has organized the second and last workshop for stakeholders. This dissemination event was hosted in the Heritage Motor Centre, Gaydon (United Kingdom) on the 28th of August, and was organized jointly by Jaguar/Land Rover, the Ilmenau University of Technology and the University of Surrey. More than 60 attendees had the opportunity to get in contact with the vehicle demonstrator and the range extender.
During the project a Land Rover Evoque was modified to build up a fully electric demonstrator equipped with torque vectoring controller. This vehicle has four individual electric motors (switched reluctance electric motors) in order to create a 4WD individual wheel driven car. Each motor is able to give 200 Nm of torque. Also, the trailer range extender equipped with a Diesel generator of 20 kW was brought from Jaguar Land Rover Headquarter.
The goal and the main developments carried out during the project were pointed out by the E-VECTOORC coordinator, Aldo Sorniotti (Surrey University). Following that, different speakers showed the activities carried out in their tasks within the project: Demonstrator vehicle construction, Safety and reliability aspects of fully electric vehicles, Direct yaw moment controllers and Vehicle longitudinal dynamics and control.
During the last part of the meeting, the attendees to the 2nd E-VECTOORC Dissemination Event could take a look to the project demonstrator and the range extender attending a live demonstration of the car driving under different conditions.
You can find more information about the project and the events carried out so far in our website http://www.e-vectoorc.eu/.
Wasis took part last 25th June in Seville to the internationally recognised 16th European Congress on Composite Materials known as the largest congress dedicated to composites materials in Europe. In this occasion more than 1.200 experts from the industry and academia joined the event coming from all areas of the world.
In agreement with the ECCM16 technical committee in charge of organising this relevant event, a session dedicated to lattice structures was organised, in which Wasis and other international initiatives as well as EU funded research projects shown their work in this field.
Directly related to WASIS, there were 6 publications, summarised in the table below:
|FABRICATION OF COMPOSITE CYLINDERS WITH INTEGRATED LATTICE STRUCTURE USING FILAMENT WINDING
||J.CERQUEIRA, H.FARIA (INEGI), R.FUNCK
||In WASIS project, a wafer-like integrative concept was developed for an innovative aircraft fuselage. A fuselage section was manufactured through filament winding. Increasingly complex tools, process kinematics and control for accurate prototypes manufacturing were developed. Feasibility analysis is also addressed.
|MANUFACTURING AND TESTING OF COMPOSITE WAFER COMPONENTS WITH DUAL-PURPOSE INTEGRATED SEMI-LOOP JOINTS
||S.KRYVENDA, F.GAGAUZ, M.SHEVTSOVA, L.SMOVZIUK (NATIONAL AEROSPACE UNIVERSITY “KHAI”), I.TARANENKO
||Combination of wafer reinforcement concept and hybrid metal-to-composite joints provides sufficient reduction of aircraft fuselage weight. Within this work manufacturing process for curved CFRP wafer panel with integrated dual-purpose semi-loop hybrid joints is presented along with panels testing results discussion.
|TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF GRID-STIFFENED COMPOSITE STRUCTURAL PANELS
||A.HAJDAEI, S.GIANNIS (ELEMENT MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY), V.MATEJAK, A.TOULITSIS
||A composite fuselage structure has been developed in WASIS project based on the lattice stiffening concept. To understand the mechanical performance and validate the design methodology a testing programme involving structural parts of different levels of complexity was executed.
|ON THE SAFETY ASSESSMENT AND DAMAGE TOLERANCE OF COMPOSITE LATTICE TYPE AEROSPACE STRUCTURES
||A.KOTZAKOLIOS (UNIVERSITY OF PATRAS), D.VLACHOS, K.ANTONIADIS, V.KOSTOPOULOS
||In this work, impact and damage response of composite wafer structures is numerically modelled. The damage created on the structure is identified and the reduction of the airworthiness of the structure is investigated. Comparisons are made with conventional composite structures.
|PREPREG LAY-UP TECHNOLOGY FOR MANUFACTURING OF LATTICE STRUCTURE FUSELAGE SECTIONS
||J.MACK (INSTITUT FUER VERBUNDWERKSTOFFE GMBH), O.MCGERGOR, P.MITSCHANG
||The manufacturing of isogrid lattice structures for a fuselage section with the AFP process was evaluated. Different designs for rib crossing points are proposed and experimentally analyzed. Solutions for convex as well as concave tooling concepts were tested
|LATTICE COMPOSITE STRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL AIRCRAFT; WASIS
||R.CORDERO (CIDAUT), M.AVERSANO
||Development of a vibroacoustic model for prediction of the CFRP fuselage section is described, emphasising on experimental characterisation of largest project prototypes and parameters identified to feed finite element and statistical energy analysis models
Two project prototypes were shown at the congress, the 0.5m and 1m in diameter scaled down fuselage sections, which attracted the attention of many participants to the congress.
Besides presentations from complementary projects like ALASKA and MAXIMUS were given.
During the lattice structures session, experts exchanged their experience in design and manufacturing, sharing information in open debates and questions sessions after each presentation. It was very interesting to compare the achievements of different initiatives in the aeronautical and aerospace sectors, obtained in European and Asian initiatives.
Jersey project (http://www.lifeproject-newjersey.com/) is a Life+ project which main objective is to demonstrate and validate a new generation of eco-friendly safety barriers with improved impact absorption performance made of recycled rubber, recycled plastics and concrete, by means of developing, designing and manufacturing the barriers and later on testing, demonstrating and validating them in a real road stretch.
Every day 3,6 people die at Spanish roads, as announced by the Dirección General de Tráfico. Though this figure is considerably lower than the 2000 average, there is still a long way to go to reach our complete safety. A good alternative to mitigate accidents and injuries is the improvement of the dampening properties of safety barriers, decreasing their stiffness and increasing the energy absorption. Moreover, if recycled rubber in form of end of life tires (ELT’s) and secondary plastics are part of the equation, then you have a safer and eco friendly barrier, which is exactly New Jersey’s main goal.
New Jersey project Consortium consists of: the Dirección General de Carreteras de la Comunidad de Madrid, Acciona Infraestructuras, Signus Ecovalor, Cidaut and the European Union Road Federation (ERF). Together, New Jersey partners have undertaken the study of the amount of rubber that can be added in the barrier, and how to include it; and the development of a elastic cover for the used rubber. Two prototypes were designed in the project and scale models of the two types of barriers have been designed, and manufactured.
Prototype 1 consists of a New Jersey Barrier with a coating of ELTs, plastics and Resins. For this prototype a material analysis was performed. Different designs were proposed and evaluated and then real scale prototypes were manufactured. Finally, EN 1317 crash test ended on July 2013.
For this prototype a material analysis was performed as well, and then a barrier was designed and produced. A summary of the results of the tests can be found on the project website (http://www.lifeproject-newjersey.com/activities.php).
Ongoing work currently focuses on prototype 2 (mixed concrete with ELTs). Prior to evaluating Prototype 2 behaviour on full scale vehicle crash test, according to EN 1317, during the month of May, several pendulum dynamic tests have been performed to evaluate impact behaviour of selected mixed concrete with ELTs formulation. (http://www.lifeproject-newjersey.com/images/ACTION32.pdf)
One more year, Cidaut was exhibiting at the European Automotive Testing Expo, which took place in Stuttgart (Germany) from June 24th to June 26th.
The Automotive Testing Expo is the global exhibition for every aspect of vehicle, motorcycle and components testing, validation, reliability assessment, quality evaluation and related data capture and analysis. It is the only event of its type taking place globally, and the essential environment for every vehicle and motorcycle test and validation system, with around 300 exhibiting parties. The latest technologies and new iterations of existing technologies are shown. This is an event that you should visit every year if you are involved in any area of vehicle, motorcycle and components testing, evaluation, quality engineering and validation.
This year, three departments from Cidaut were involved in the exhibition, namely Acoustics & Vibrations, Mechanical Testing and Vehicle Safety. We showed our visitors how partnering with CIDAUT can help them to speed up their developments thanks to our concurrent engineering basis where a full range of testing facilities, numerical modelling and engineering services with multidisciplinary experts are combined together on the same place.
With the aim of mitigating consequences of a possible run-off accident of a motor vehicle and protect the vulnerable users (pedestrians and cyclists), CIDAUT-CIDRO has developed the first road restraint system (RRS) to contain impacts of passenger cars, coaches and buses.
Run-off accidents in urban areas mean an important road safety problem, specially for pedestrians and cyclists, due to the fact that current RRS installed between the urban road (platform) and the pedestrian pavement or the cycling pathwhen they do not meet safety requirements indicated in the european standard (EN-1317-2 “Road Restraint Systems – Safety Barriers”).
With the aim of mitigating consequences of a possible run-off accident of a motor vehicle and protect vulnerable users like pedestrians and cyclist, CIDAUT-CIDRO has developed the first RRS ready to be safe (to contain) against impacts of passenger cars at 80Km/h (although urban speed limit is lower) and coaches and buses at 50Km/h: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rXUixw1azK8. The impact parameters (based on EN-1317-2) measured during these crash tests will ensure mitigation of severity associated to this kind of accidents.
Last May, this innovative solution was applied in the Spanish city of Lucena, urban road belonging to the Spanish Road Administration of “Junta de Andalucía”.
The Green eMotion project is part of the European Green Cars Initiative (EGCI) that was launched within the context of the European Recovery Plan. It supports the achievement of the EU’s ambitious climate goals, such as the reduction of CO2 emissions by 60 percent by the year 2050. EGCI supports the research and development of road transport solutions that have the potential to achieve sustainable as well as groundbreaking results in the use of renewable and non-polluting energy sources. The project is working to prepare the foundation for the mass deployment of Europe-wide electromobility.
Green eMotion demonstration sites, the locations from which EV will reach Brussels include Dublin, Strasburg, Berlin and Copenhagen among others.
As part of the Green eMotion project events, EV interoperability will be shown next September 18th in Brussels during the EC mobility week. Several partners in the project will drive different EV from their countries to the Belgium capital; the different charging events necessary to reach Brussels will be managed using the Green eMotion market place. The idea is to demonstrate that EV charging is feasible between different companies managing these charging points, as well as between different countries in a similar way to the mobile phone roaming. This rally to Brussels will be complemented on the morning of September 18th with a live demonstration of the EV interoperability. The EV driven to Brussels will be connected to different charging points, the identification of those vehicles, as well as the authorization for the charging of their batteries will be shown validating the Green eMotion marketplace, which is the tool developed within the project.
This Green eMotion project event will be held in Hotel Courtyard Brussels, Avenue des Olympiades 6, Brussels 1140 and it will include a demonstration of charging, using different vehicles, charging points and charging RFID cards. Afterwards, a series of conferences will be held, to present the main achievements of the project on the charging infrastructure, ICT tools and standards among others. The demonstration of the charging event and the marketplace will take place on the morning, while the conferences will take place from 13.00 to 17.00.
You will find more information on the following number of our newsletter, as well as on the Green eMotion project public web site http://www.greenemotion-project.eu/